Food safety

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Food safety

 
Eating contaminated food is one of the most pathogenic matters, especially food poisoning cases



an introduction

  •  · Eating contaminated food is one of the most pathogenic matters, especially food poisoning cases. Due to this, food habits have changed a lot in most countries during the past two decades, and this was accompanied by new methods of food production, preparation and distribution;  Therefore, hygiene control has become a must.  As a result, a global food constitution was drawn up for the hygiene of food products.


  •  Many people get sick each year as a result of the foods they eat.  These people may have diarrhea, fever, vomiting, or gastrointestinal disturbances.  When they have these symptoms, they think that they have the flu, but the real cause lies in food infections, which are caused by bacteria in most cases.


 Fortunately, most food-borne illnesses can be controlled if food is handled properly.


 - Failure to adhere to the necessary temperatures during food storage is one of the most important reasons resulting from improper handling of food, which results in foodborne diseases.


 - After this reason comes the lack of personal hygiene, incomplete cooking, the use of contaminated utensils, eating foods from unsafe sources.

 

 Principles of the World Food Codex


 Define basic principles of food hygiene that can be applied to the food chain.

 Recommending an approach based on analyzing the sources of risk, pollution and critical control points during the agricultural production process.

  •  Provide the necessary guidance to enhance the conditions of hygiene and safety


 What does the term food safety mean


  •  It means providing sufficient and safe food that meets the conditions and procedures to be taken during the production, processing, storage, distribution or preparation of food to ensure its safety or suitability for human consumption.


 What does safe food mea


  •  Safe food is that which is presented to be consumed by a group of consumers who are able to distinguish and are familiar with the stages of its production. Food is considered spoiled if consumers refuse to eat it because of its harm to health or as a result of one or more of its natural or chemical characteristics.

 The following characteristics must be present in food safe for consumption

 1- It must be mature enough and desired by the consumer.

 2- It must be free from pollution harmful to health in all stages of its production and circulation.

  •  3- It must be free from unwanted changes, whether microbial, enzymatic or chemical.


 Definition of food poisoning


  •  Food poisoning is usually known as a sudden disease whose symptoms appear within a short period of time for one or several people after consuming an unhealthy food.

 Symptoms of food poisonin


  •  Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach and intestinal cramps, and in some cases of food poisoning, symptoms appear in the form of paralysis of the nervous system along with intestinal disorders, and the symptoms of infection, high temperature, severity, and the time period required for the appearance of pathological symptoms varies according to the causes of poisoning and the amount of food eaten by the person.


 Types of food poisoning


 First: microbial poisoning


 Bacterial contamination

 For example (contamination of poultry as a result of the reproduction of the salmonella microbe - salmonellosis diseases - as well as the secretions of the microorganism Colestridid ​​Bitoluinium, which is known as bitolone poisoning that abounds in cooked foods and exposed at room temperature for a long time.


 Contamination from yeast activity

 Contamination resulting from the activity of yeasts such as Saccharomyces (Cerbesia). These yeasts usually grow in juices and pastes preserved under unsuitable hygienic conditions.


 Contamination caused by fungi

 Contamination caused by fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and aflatoxin, and these fungi usually grow on fruits, legumes and forages and secrete their own toxins, which leads to human or animal poisoning.



 Second: chemical poisoning

 Metal poisoning (cadmium - lead - mercury - arsenic)

 Mercury causes loss of sensation in the extremities - weight loss - decreased hearing


 Poisoning with chemicals and industrial detergents

 Cleaning materials, as they contribute to increasing the ozone hole (aerosols, harsh substances, and particles flying from them cause allergies and some of them cause lung and blood cancer.


 Poisoning by flavorings, flavorings and preservatives

 The presence of pesticide residues

 Poisoning with barium carbonate, which is used to combat insects, among the most important symptoms of respiratory distress and diarrhea.


 - Poisoning with DDT, which is an internationally banned pesticide that does not destroy until after a long period, and the main symptoms are nervous irritation, muscle weakness and liver damage.


 - Poisoning with sodium fluoride, which is used as a pesticide and as an insecticide

 Bloody vomit


  •  - Naphthalene poisoning, which is used as an air freshener, is a symptom of headache - difficulty breathing


 Poisoning by flavorings, flavorings and preservatives

 Article E 123 Amaranth

 It is provided in the formation of food, sweets and juices and their damages cause cancer, deformation of fetuses, skin allergies and nasal congestion in pregnant women


 - E250 E251: which is nitrate and sodium nitrate and is used only to preserve meat from microbial poisoning and to keep the red color in the meat and its damages: it kills beneficial bacteria in the intestine and causes cancer when it mixes with proteins and forms nitrate and zamine.


 -E220- and E321: What synthetic antioxidants cause cancer and deform fetuses


  •  Mono sodium glutamate: MSG, known as E62, is a substance that gives food a delicious flavor and has been shown to cause damage to the brain of experimental animals.


 Third: Natural toxicants in Foods

 Natural toxic substances in food

 Alkaloids

 Glycoalkaloids glycosidic alkaloids:

 Glycosides are natural toxins found in potatoes, tomatoes, and eggplant.

 1- Solanine in "green" potatoes

 The symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and severe stomach cramps are accompanied by headache and dizziness.

 2- The alphatomatin in tomatoes (that is, in green fruits)

 Tomatine is found in all parts of the tomato plant except for the underlying seeds, and the highest concentration of tomatine is found in the leaves of flowers and modern fruits.

 3- Lupine in eggplant

  •  These compounds were found to cause birth defects in the embryos of mice with embryotoxicity.


 Quinolizidine Alkaloids Quinolizidine

 Alkaloids are found in lupine, and the bitter types of lupine contain 2-3% of alkaloids, while the sweet varieties contain less than 0.02% of alkaloids only.

 Lupine alkaloids

 Sparteine, Lupanine

 To get rid of alkaloids

 Soaking lupine seeds in water for 5 hours, boiling for 30 minutes, then washing the cooked seeds with running water for 48 hours, completely eliminating bitterness and alkaloids.

 Effect on health

  •  Quinolizidine alkaloids cause nausea, disturbed vision, heavy sweating, shortness of breath, weakness, weakness or coma.

 Purine alkaloids

  •  There are purine alkaloids in beverages such as coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate, cola and various tea herbs, and among the most important purine alkaloids.



 Food Infection Diseases?

  •  Food infection diseases can be defined as every disease transmitted to humans through food.  The great development in methods of tracking diseases and detecting their causes has led to the possibility of linking certain diseases with special groups of foods.  For example: A list of foods that cause infectious diseases has been prepared, food by the American Community Health Service, and this list has been called the Dangerous Food List, of course if these foods are not handled properly, and this list includes foods high in moisture, protein, and / or few foods.  Acidity
  •  Milk, dairy products, the outer surface of the egg, meat, poultry, and fish are among the foods high in protein.  Baked or fried potatoes, soy proteins, and heat-treated plant foods encourage the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.


 Who are the most vulnerable food infection disease?

  •  Our immune system helps us to fight diseases, but the immune system is not strong in some groups, such as: infants, pregnant women, the elderly, and people with chronic diseases, which leads to an increase in the protection of these groups being infected with food infection diseases.


  •  Children: Children's stomachs do not produce large amounts of acids, which means that they are easily infected with food infections
  •  Pregnant woman: The fetus is at risk because its immune system has not yet developed


  •  The elderly: Poor good nutrition, lack of protein intake, in addition to poor blood circulation, may lead to a weakening of the immune system



 How does food become dangerous?

 Food becomes dangerous when contaminated.  Contamination can be defined as the unintended presence of substances harmful to health, or microorganisms in food.  Food can become contaminated through chemical, biological, or physical sources:

 Hazard of chemical source: which includes detergents, sterilizers, and pesticides.

 The risk of the physical source: which includes the presence of foreign materials in food such as glass, stones ...

  •  Biological source danger: which comes primarily from microorganisms



 What is cross (cross-contamination)?

  •  Cross-contamination can be defined as the transfer of harmful substances to healthy food by: hands that came into contact with raw food, such as chicken, and then came into contact with food that will not be subjected to heat treatment after that, such as the authorities, and thus the existing microorganisms will be able to grow and cause diseases.  Unclean or unsterilized surfaces and towels that come into contact with food prepared for eating, meaning that it will not be subjected to heat treatment after that to eliminate existing microorganisms as a result of pollution.  Contact with raw (uncooked) food or contaminated food with food prepared for eating


 Pollutants, their types and sources

 Pollutants: They are microorganisms or toxic substances that affect food products (vegetables and fruits) and work to spoil and contaminate them.


 Food pollutants are considered pathogens for humans, which come from eating food, vegetables and fruits contaminated with a food contaminant.

 - Some living organisms are useful to humans and are involved in the manufacture of some foods, such as bread, cheese and medicine

 Factors of food contamination (vegetables and fruits) during various agricultural operations

 l Pesticides: Use of pesticides extensively and excessively

 l Fertilizers: The intensive and excessive use of fertilizers, as well as the compost contact with the fruits.

 l Picking: Using unclean harvesting tools and dirty packing boxes, and not using special clothing during the harvesting process.

  •  l Transportation and storage: Wrong practices for transporting and storing fruits, such as not using a closed transport vehicle, or using dirt roads (dust) and storing in unsanitary conditions such as high temperature, humidity, and lack of good ventilation.


 Sources of vegetable and fruit contamination

 Vegetable and fruit products are exposed to pollutants during the various stages of production by:

 - Contaminated soil - contaminated water - organic fertilizers

 - Sewage water - polluted air - people

 - the animals

 Some classes of food pollutants

 Salmonella bacteria

 Shigella bacteria

 Bacillus bacteria

 Hepatitis virus

 Nematodes and parasites

  •  Natural pollutants such as toxic herbs and fungi Phytohamaegglu


 Why do we care about microorganisms?

 Microorganisms are everywhere.  You don't see it, or smell it, or feel it taste, but it is on your body, in the air, on the kitchen surface and its utensils, and of course it is in the food.

  •  Among the most important microorganisms: viruses, parasites, yeasts and molds, and bacteria



 Bacteria

 Some types of bacteria are not pathogenic by themselves, but when they are in food, they multiply greatly, and they produce toxins that poison the people who eat the food.

 When the right conditions are present, the bacteria will double their numbers every 10 to 30 minutes.  For example, one cell divides into two cells, each cell divides into two to produce four cells, which divide into eight cells ... and so on.  This indicates that a single cell may produce a billion cells within 10 to 12 hours if the appropriate conditions are provided


 What are the conditions that favor the growth of bacteria?

  •  Some types of bacteria can tolerate low temperatures, and some can withstand high temperatures, but in general most types of bacteria prefer to live in an environment with a warm temperature, rich in protein, and moderate to low acidity.  Of course, there are exceptions, as some types of bacteria can withstand very harsh conditions, such as withstanding high or very low temperatures, or growing in an environment with high acidity or salinity.  But we can generalize and say that most types of bacteria can grow faster within temperatures ranging from 5 to 60 degrees Celsius, and this area of ​​temperature is called the dangerous zone.



 How can I safely deal with food?

 Bacteria such as Staphylococci are found on human skin and hair

 His mouth, as well as in his throat.  According to some statistics, it was found that 50% of those who deal in food preparation and do not complain of any diseases are carriers of diseases that can be transmitted through food.

  •  Therefore, it is evident that the best way to prevent the transmission of diseases from these people to food is to pay great attention to personal health. Caring for health matters means concern for personal hygiene, attention to external appearance, and attention to matters that affect health.  You must bear in mind that you will not be the only victim, but may become a carrier of this disease that you may transmit to other people by not following the correct methods of dealing with food.  A single sneeze may carry with it thousands of microorganisms, which can cause disease


 General principles for preventing food poisoning

  •  1- Wash hands well with soap and hot water before eating, especially meat, fish, poultry and eggs.
  •  2- Not to buy or use food packed in open or broken boxes, because there is a high risk of spoilage.
  •  3- You must make sure that all tools used in the kitchen are clean before preparing food (such as the kitchen surface or cutting board - dishes - knives - spoons).
  •  4- Wash fruits and vegetables carefully before eating them.
  •  5- Not leaving fresh food at high temperature and keeping it at a suitable cold or freezing temperature.
  •  6- You must use adequate temperatures for cooking food, such as using 71 ° C for cooking beef, 82 ° C for chicken cooking and 77 ° C for cooking fish and eggs to a hardness of whites and yolks.
  •  7- Food is preserved according to its type, either below 4 ° C or higher than 60 ° C when cooked, as the ideal temperature range for microbial growth is 16.32 ° C.
  •  8- Covering food tightly and keeping it well, whether in the refrigerator or at room temperature, depending on the type of food.
  •  9- Make sure that the refrigerator's cooling temperature is below 4 ° C and the freezer is above 18 ° C.

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